There is no consensus on screening strategy of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN). Guidelines range from clinical examination with digital anorectal examination followed by standard anoscopy (SA), to anal cytology (Pap)+/- HPV genotyping. We compared screening strategy yields based on Pap, SA, and HPV-16 genotyping alone or in combination in HIV-MSM.
Pap, SA, and HPV-16 genotyping were performed in all HIV-MSM attending a first anal cancer screening consultation in Paris, France. High-resolution anoscopy, the gold standard to detect HGAIN, was performed in the case of HPV-16 positivity or abnormal cytology. Yield was defined as the number of patients with HGAIN relative to the total number of patients screened.
On 212 patients, the complete strategy (SA + Pap + HPV genotyping) yield (12.7%) was significantly higher than that of SA (3.3%, p < 0.001) and HPV-16 alone (6.6%, p < 0.05). Although none of the other strategies were significantly different from the complete strategy, Pap + HPV-16 and Pap + SA had closer yields (about 11%), with OR = 0.83 (95% CI [0.44;1.57]) and 0.87 (95% CI [0.46;1.64]), respectively.
Pap combined with HPV-16 genotyping or SA tended towards higher yields compared to Pap alone, and closer to that of the complete strategy.