To investigate the occurrence of postinfectious IBS in routine outpatient care, comparing different types of GI infection and its interaction with psychosomatic comorbidity.
Retrospective cohort study using routinely collected claims data covering statutorily insured patients in Bavaria, Germany. Cases were defined as patients without prior record of functional intestinal disorder with a first-time diagnosis of GI infection between January 2005 and December 2013 and classed according to the type of infection. Each case was matched by age, sex and district of residence to a patient without history of GI infection. Prior psychological disorder (depression, anxiety or stress reaction disorder) was assessed in the 2 years prior to inclusion. Proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the HRs for GI infection and psychological disorder. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) was assessed as a comparator outcome.
A total of 508 278 patients with first diagnosis of GI infection were identified, resulting in a matched cohort of 1 016 556 patients. All infection types were associated with an increased risk of IBS (HR: 2.19-4.25) and CFS (HR 1.35-1.82). Prior psychological disorder was a distinct risk factor for IBS (HR: 1.73) and CFS (HR: 2.08). Female sex was a further risk factor for both conditions.
Psychological disorder and GI infections are distinct risk factors for IBS. The high incidence of non-specific GI infection suggests that postinfectious IBS is a common clinical occurrence in primary care. Chronic fatigue is a further significant sequela of GI infection.