Cholangiocarcinoma is an aggressive malignancy with limited therapeutic options. MEK inhibition and antiangiogenic therapies have individually shown modest activity in advanced cholangiocarcinoma, whereas dual inhibition of these pathways has not been previously evaluated. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of combination therapy with the oral VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor pazopanib plus the MEK inhibitor trametinib in patients with advanced cholangiocarcinoma.
In this open-label, multicentre, single-arm trial, adults with advanced unresectable cholangiocarcinoma received pazopanib 800 mg daily and trametinib 2 mg daily until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) with secondary end points including overall survival (OS), response rate, and disease control rate (DCR).
A total of 25 patients were enrolled and had received a median of 2 prior systemic therapies (range 1-7). Median PFS was 3.6 months (95% CI: 2.7-5.1) and the 4-month PFS was 40% (95% CI: 24.7-64.6%). There was a trend towards increased 4-month PFS as compared with the prespecified null hypothesised 4-month PFS of 25%, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (P=0.063). The median survival was 6.4 months (95% CI: 4.3-10.2). The objective response rate was 5% (95% CI: 0.13-24.9%) and the DCR was 75% (95% CI: 51%, 91%). Grade 3/4 adverse events attributable to study drugs were observed in 14 (56%) and included thrombocytopenia, abnormal liver enzymes, rash, and hypertension.
Although the combination of pazopanib plus trametinib had acceptable toxicity with evidence of clinical activity, it did not achieve a statistically significant improvement in 4-month PFS over the prespecified null hypothesised 4-month PFS.