SNFGE SNFGE
 
Thématique :
- Foie
Originalité :
Très original
Solidité :
Très solide
Doit faire évoluer notre pratique :
Dans certains cas
 
 
Nom du veilleur :
Professeur Jean-Marie PERON
Coup de coeur :
 
 
Gastroenterology
  2017/09  
 
  2017 Sep;153(3):711-722.  
  doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.05.055.  
 
  Prebiotics Reduce Body Fat and Alter Intestinal Microbiota in Children Who Are Overweight or With Obesity.  
 
  Nicolucci AC, Hume MP, Martínez I, Mayengbam S, Walter J, Reimer RA  
  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28596023  
 
 

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

It might be possible to manipulate the intestinal microbiota with prebiotics or other agents to prevent or treat obesity. However, little is known about the ability of prebiotics to specifically modify gut microbiota in children with overweight/obesity or reduce body weight. We performed a randomized controlled trial to study the effects of prebiotics on body composition, markers of inflammation, bile acids in fecal samples, and composition of the intestinal microbiota in children with overweight or obesity.

METHODS:

We performed a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 2 separate cohorts (March 2014 and August 2014) at the University of Calgary in Canada. Participants included children, 7-12 years old, with overweight or obesity (>85th percentile of body mass index) but otherwise healthy. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given either oligofructose-enriched inulin (OI; 8 g/day; n=22) or maltodextrin placebo (isocaloric dose, controls; n=20) once daily for 16 weeks. Fat mass and lean mass were measured using dual-energy-x-ray absorptiometry. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured at baseline and every 4 weeks thereafter. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 16 weeks, and analyzed for lipids, cytokines, lipopolysaccharide, and insulin. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and 16 weeks; bile acids were profiled using high-performance liquid chromatography and the composition of the microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The primary outcome was change in percent body fat from baseline to 16 weeks.

RESULTS:

After 16 weeks, children who consumed OI had significant decreases in body weight z-score (decrease of 3.1%), percent body fat (decrease of 2.4%), and percent trunk fat (decrease of 3.8%) compared with children given placebo (increase of 0.5%, increase of 0.05%, and decrease of 0.3%, respectively). Children who consumed OI also had a significant reduction in level of interleukin 6 from baseline (decrease of 15%) compared with the placebo group (increase of 25%). There was a significant decrease in serum triglycerides (decrease of 19%) in the OI group. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed a significant increase in Bifidobacterium spp. in the OI group compared with controls. 16S rRNA sequencing revealed significant increases in species of the genus Bifidobacterium and decreases in Bacteroides vulgatus within the group who consumed OI. In fecal samples, levels of primary bile acids increased in the placebo group but not in the OI group over the 16-week study period.

CONCLUSIONS:

In a placebo-controlled, randomized trial, we found a prebiotic (OI) to selectively alter the intestinal microbiota and significantly reduce body weight z-score, percent body fat, percent trunk fat, and serum level of interleukin 6 in children with overweight or obesity (Clinicaltrials.gov no: NCT02125955).

 
Question posée
 
Est-ce que l’ingestion de prébiotiques régule le microbiote intestinal et permet la perte de poids chez des enfants en surpoids?
 
Question posée
 
Oui. L’ingestion de prébiotiques entraîne une perte de poids significative liée à une diminution de la masse grasse et secondaire à une régulation du microbiote intestinal.
 
Commentaires

Les prébiotiques à ne pas confondre avec les probiotiques sont des oligosaccharides ou des polysaccharides à courte chaîne. Ce sont des substrats potentiels pour l’hydrolyse et la fermentation des bactéries intestinales qui proviennent de fibres alimentaires. L’utilisation de prébiotiques permet donc de rééquilibrer le microbiote intestinal.

 
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