BACKGROUND & AIMS:
Vedolizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against α4β7 integrin, is used to treat adults with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). We investigated the time course of clinical response to vedolizumab in patients who were and were not previously treated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists.
We performed a post-hoc analysis of data from phase 3, randomized, controlled trials of vedolizumab vs placebo in adult patients with UC (N = 374) or CD (N = 784). We collected data on patient-reported symptoms (rectal bleeding and stool frequency for patients with UC, abdominal pain and loose stool frequency for patients with CD) reported at weeks 2, 4, and 6 of treatment. We reported mean percentage score changes from baseline and proportions of patients who achieved predefined scores. We performed multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with an early response (at week 2).
In patients with UC (overall or naive to TNF antagonist therapy), a significantly greater percentage of patients given vedolizumab achieved the predefined composite symptom score at weeks 2, 4, and 6 compared to those given placebo. In patients with CD who were naive to TNF antagonists, a significantly greater percentage of patients given vedolizumab achieved the predefined score at weeks 2 and 4 compared to those given placebo. Among patients with UC given vedolizumab, 19.1% (overall) and 22.3% (TNF antagonist naive) achieved a composite score of rectal bleeding of 0 and stool frequency ≤1 at week 2 compared to 10% (overall) and 6.6% (TNF antagonist naive) of those receiving placebo. Among TNF antagonist-naive patients with CD, 15.0% of those given vedolizumab achieved an average daily composite score of abdominal pain ≤1 and loose stool frequency ≤3 at week 2 (compared to 7.9% given placebo), and 23.8% of those given vedolizumab achieved these by week 4 (compared to 10.3% given placebo).
In a post-hoc analysis of data from phase 3 clinical trials, vedolizumab significantly improved patient-reported symptoms of UC and CD as early as week 2 of treatment, continuing through the first 6 weeks-especially when given as first-line biologic therapy. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00783718, NCT00783692, NCT01224171.